ERIC Number: ED174505
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1979-May
Education as Anti-Structure: Non-Formal Education in Social and Ethnic Movements.
Paulston, Rolland G.
The article describes how folk educational programs in the United States and in the Scandinavian countries work toward behavioral and social change efforts. The conditions under which collective change efforts create their own educational programs, the most effective pedagogical processes, and the variables associated with successful attempts to join folk colleges to social and ethnic movements are examined. Conditions for change are described as occurring when discontented people seek to solve problems through mobilization and the creation of movement organizations. Although size is not a key consideration, the way that restraints (e.g. economic-political, ethno-cultural, or religious) are identified and the articulation of realistic goals are crucial elements. Pedagogical processes at folk colleges are assessed according to three orientations: the poetic-historic (idealistic and spiritual), the rational-pragmatic (literacy, numerical, and organizational skills), and the ideological-confrontational (militancy and struggle). Conclusions are that the most effective movement-education programs are found either in mass reformist movements seeking to extend democratic participation and secure folk political dominance or in elite movements seeking to defend traditional rights. A paradigm of social groups illustrates how key characteristics of size and power can be used to classify social and ethnic movements and thus indicate their potential for mounting educational programs with some promise of accomplishing movement objectives. Movements and folk high schools of the Swedish-Lapps, the Swede-Finns, U.S. Danes, the Norwegians, and the pre-World War II American labor colleges are cited. (KC)
Descriptors: Activism, Adult Education, Attitude Change, Change Agents, Comparative Education, Educational Practices, Educational Programs, Ethnic Groups, Folk Schools, Nonformal Education, Nontraditional Education, Postsecondary Education, Research Needs, Secondary Education, Social Change, Success, Teacher Effectiveness
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Pittsburgh Univ., PA. International and Development Education Program.; Pittsburgh Univ., PA. School of Education.
Identifiers - Location: United States