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ERIC Number: EJ1200412
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2019-Jan
Pages: 8
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1053-4512
The Virtual-Representational-Abstract Framework to Support Students with Disabilities in Mathematics
Bouck, Emily C.; Sprick, Jessica
Intervention in School and Clinic, v54 n3 p173-180 Jan 2019
The virtual-representational-abstract (VRA) framework adapts an evidence-based practice, the concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) framework, while trying to meet students and teachers where they are in terms of technology interest and use in education. This article discusses the VRA framework and the advantages of virtual manipulatives, and explains how a teacher can implement the VRA framework. Although more research is needed on the VRA framework, the VRA provides teachers an option as an instructional practice or intervention to support students struggling in mathematics.
SAGE Publications and Hammill Institute on Disabilities. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A