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ERIC Number: ED587689
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2018
Pages: 6
Abstractor: ERIC
Summary of Outcomes from First Grade Study with "Read, Write, and Type" and "Auditory Discrimination in Depth" Instruction and Software with At-Risk Children. FCRR Technical Report #2
Torgesen, Joseph K.; Wagner, Richard K.; Rashotte, Carol A.; Herron, Jeannine
Florida Center for Reading Research
The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effectiveness of two computer supported approaches to teaching beginning reading skills that differed in important aspects of their instructional approach and emphasis. One of the programs was "Auditory Discrimination in Depth," which provides very explicit instruction and practice in acquiring phonological awareness and phonemic decoding skills. In this program, children spend a lot of time practicing word reading skills out of context, but they also read phonetically controlled text in order to learn how to apply their word reading skills to passages that convey meaning. The other program was "Read, Write, and Type," which provides explicit instruction and practice in phonological awareness, letter sound correspondences, and phonemic decoding, but does so primarily in the context of encouraging children to express themselves in written language. In this program, children spend a greater proportion of their time processing meaningful written material, and they are encouraged to acquire "phonics" knowledge to enable written communication. All the first grade children in five elementary schools were initially screened using a test of letter-sound knowledge. Selection procedures identified 18% of children as the most at risk in these schools to develop problems in learning to read. These 104 children were randomly assigned to the ADD group, and the RWT group. Children were seen from October through May in groups of three children. The children received four, 50 minute sessions per week during this time. Approximately half the time in each instructional session was devoted to direct instruction by a trained teacher in skills and concepts that would be practiced on the computer. The big surprise here was how well everyone did. Particularly in phonemic reading skills, the children in both groups showed very large gains (two full standard deviations) in this area, and their gains in fluency were almost as strong as those for accuracy. The results are encouraging for both intervention programs. It is also important to note that the reading comprehension scores were higher than expected based on the children's estimated general verbal ability.
Florida Center for Reading Research. Florida State University City Centre Building, 227 North Bronough Street Suite 7250, Tallahassee, FL 32301. Tel: 850-644-9352; Fax: 850-644-9085; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 1
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Florida State University, Florida Center for Reading Research
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale