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ERIC Number: ED575812
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2016
Pages: 44
Abstractor: As Provided
ISBN: 978-1-3696-3578-2
A Content Analysis of Online HPV Immunization Information
Pappa, Sara T.
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati
The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) can cause some types of cancer and is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the US. Because most people turn to the internet for health information, this study analyzed HPV information found online. A content analysis was conducted on 69 web search results (URLs) from Google, Yahoo, Bing and Ask. The content was analyzed for source, tone, presence of science-based content and presence of theory (constructs of the Health Belief Model). In Chapter 1, relationships between these aspects of the URL content were examined. The majority of URLs were pro-HPV vaccine (62.3%) followed by neutral (23.2%) and anti (14.5%). Government and medical sites had the most pro-HPV vaccine sites with 32.6% and 23.3% respectively. Only three types of sites contained anti-HPV vaccine information, news agencies (50%), non-profits (30%) and medical advice (20%). No statistically significant relationship was found between source of URL and tone (?[superscript 2][subscript (14)] = 87.28, p = 0.058) or tone and number of scientific citations (?[superscript 2][subscript (4)]) = 62.81, p = 0.655). However, a statistically significant relationship was found between tone and theory (?[superscript 2][subscript (4)] = 106.90, p = 0.002). There were no statistically significant interaction or main effects found between tone of URL and both science and theory. In Chapter 2, differences in results were analyzed based on the search engines and eight search terms. Descriptive statistics were reported on the 69 URLs included in the study. Google yielded the most "good" searches at 29 (42%). For Google and Yahoo, the highest returns were from medical advice sites, 31.0% and 38.5% respectively. Bing had the highest search returns from government agencies at 50.0%. Ask was the only engine to return a pharmaceutical company (n = 1). For tone, Google, Bing and Ask returned the highest percentages of Pro-HPV sites (75.9%, 72.7% and 50.0% respectively) while Yahoo returned the highest percentage of neutral (46.2). Ask had the second highest neutral returns with 31.3%. While all engines had at least one anti-HPV return, Ask had the highest percent with 18.8. Google was the only engine to return a site with six or more scientific citations (n = 1). For theory, Bing had the highest percent of returns with 4-5 theoretical constructs mentioned (36.3%). For tone, the term "human papillomavirus immunization" had 100% pro-HPV vaccination returns. "Gardasil" had the highest percent of anti-HPV vaccination returns with 50% while "Cervarix" had the same number of neutral as pro-HPV vaccination returns, with 46.2% each. The terms "human papillomavirus vaccine" and "Gardasil" both had 100% of the returns fall in the 0-1 scientific citations category. Three terms, "HPV vaccine," "HPV vaccination" and "human papillomavirus" each had one return with 6 or more citations. For theory, the majority of sites returned had 2-5 of the HBM constructs contained or referred to in the information. "HPV vaccination" and "human papillomavirus immunization" had the highest returns with 4-5 constructs, with 50% and 60% respectively. Recommendations include maintaining consistent monitoring of URLs as well as search optimization tools to ensure that health consumers and healthcare providers can easily find correct and accurate information. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
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Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A