ERIC Number: ED592082
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2019
What We Know about Grading: What Works, What Doesn't, and What's Next
Guskey, Thomas R., Ed.; Brookhart, Susan M., Ed.
Grading is one of the most hotly debated topics in education, and grading practices themselves are largely based on tradition, instinct, or personal history or philosophy. But to be effective, grading policies and practices must be based on trustworthy research evidence. Enter this book: a review of 100-plus years of grading research that presents the broadest and most comprehensive summary of research on grading and reporting available to date, with clear takeaways for learning and teaching. Edited by Thomas R. Guskey and Susan M. Brookhart, this indispensable guide features thoughtful, thorough dives into the research from a distinguished team of scholars, geared to a broad range of stakeholders, including teachers, school leaders, policymakers, and researchers. Each chapter addresses a different area of grading research and describes how the major findings in that area might be leveraged to improve grading policy and practice. Ultimately, Guskey and Brookhart identify four themes emerging from the research that can guide these efforts: (1) Start with clear learning goals; (2) Focus on the feedback function of grades; (3) Limit the number of grade categories; and (4) Provide multiple grades that reflect product, process, and progress criteria. By distilling the vast body of research evidence into meaningful, actionable findings and strategies, this book is the jump-start all stakeholders need to build a better understanding of what works--and where to go from here. After an introduction from the editors, chapters in this book include: (1) Reliability in Grading and Grading Scales (Susan M. Brookhart and Thomas R. Guskey); (2) Report Card Grades and Educational Outcomes (Alex J. Bowers); (3) The Composition of Grades: Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors (Sarah M. Bonner and Peggy P. Chen); (4) Surveys of Teachers' Grading Practices and Perceptions (James H. McMillan); (5) Standards-Based Grading (Megan Welsh); (6) Grading Students with Learning Differences (Lee Ann Jung); (7) Leadership for Grading Reform (Laura J. Link); and (8) Grading in Higher Education (Jeffrey K. Smith and Lisa F. Smith). The book closes with "Conclusion: Where Do We Go from Here?" from the editors.
Descriptors: Grading, Educational Objectives, Feedback (Response), Grades (Scholastic), Report Cards, Cognitive Ability, Teacher Attitudes, Academic Standards, Cognitive Style, Learning Problems, Leadership Responsibility, Higher Education
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Publication Type: Books; Collected Works - General
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: Teachers; Policymakers; Researchers
Authoring Institution: ASCD