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Whiffen, Joshua W.; Karpicke, Jeffrey D. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2017
The episodic context account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances subsequent retention because people must think back to and reinstate a prior learning context. Three experiments directly tested this central assumption of the context account. Subjects studied word lists and then either restudied the words under intentional…
Descriptors: Learning, Recall (Psychology), Retention (Psychology), Prior Learning
Gillespie, Marilyn K. – 2002
Research findings related to constructivism have been applied to development of the Equipped for the Future (EFF) Framework and Continuum of Performance, a multi-dimensional developmental description of performance serving as a foundation for EFF-based instruction and assessment of learner progress. Acquiring expertise is a complex developmental…
Descriptors: Adult Education, Cognitive Ability, Cognitive Development, Cognitive Processes
Ackerman, Amy S. – 1977
Adjunct questions are test-like items interspersed at regular intervals, preceding or following prose passages, with the intention of increasing subsequent learning. In this state-of-the-art review, studies which include three major variables--age, ability, and question complexity level--are examined to determine whether a particular combination…
Descriptors: Ability, Advance Organizers, Age, Difficulty Level
Morse, Jean A.; Morse, P. Kenneth – 1978
In two identical experiments, undergraduate students were randomly assigned to study course-appropriate prose learning materials under one of four experimental conditions (two levels of experience with objectives by two levels of possession of objectives). Achievement on objectives-relevant test items was significantly higher for possessors…
Descriptors: Classroom Research, Course Objectives, Educational Objectives, Higher Education
Royer, Paula Nassif – 1976
The effects of specificity and position of written instructional objectives on learning from an audiotaped lecture were investigated using materials from Rothkopf and Kaplan (1972). Subjects received either specific or general objectives before or after the four sections of the lecture. A control group received no objectives. Vocabulary items used…
Descriptors: Audiotape Recordings, Behavioral Objectives, Educational Research, Incidental Learning
Greenwald, Anthony G. – J Educ Psychol, 1970
Intentional learning was found to be more efficient with reward than punishment. Incidental learning results showed no reward- punishment differences. (DG)
Descriptors: Association (Psychology), Associative Learning, College Students, Educational Psychology
Frayer, Dorothy A.; Klausmeier, Herbert J. – 1971
A series of papers will be written to review in a comprehensive fashion the literature related to 3 categories of variables in concept learning: task variables, stimulus variables, and learner variables. This paper, the first of the series, focuses on task variables. Research dealing with instructions, temporal factors, and feedback is critically…
Descriptors: Concept Formation, Feedback, Incidental Learning, Intentional Learning
Morse, Jean A.; Tillman, Murray H. – 1972
Fifty-two college students, enrolled in an introductory psychology course, served as subjects for this study, the purposes of which were: (1) to determine whether supplying subjects with a list of behavioral objectives causes them to focus their learning efforts on the specified behaviors to the extent that attention to non-specified behaviors is…
Descriptors: Behavioral Objectives, Education, Educational Objectives, Instruction
Kaplan, R.; Rothkopf, E. Z. – 1972
This study examined the effects of four characteristics of instructional objectives presented to the student prior to reading, upon intentional and incidental learning. The most salient result was produced by providing instructional objectives to the student prior to the text. The main findings were that (a) density increases (Proportion of…
Descriptors: Educational Objectives, Factor Analysis, Incidental Learning, Instructional Design
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Royer, Paula Nassif – Journal of Educational Psychology, 1977
Subjects received either specific or general objectives before or after the four sections of the audiotaped lecture. A control group received no objectives. Results on the use of objectives with written text showed that the before position increased intentional learning more than the after position. Incidental learning was significantly higher…
Descriptors: Audiotape Recordings, College Students, Educational Objectives, Incidental Learning
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Dusek, Jerome B.; And Others – Child Development, 1976
The incidental and intentional learning abilities of high- and low-test-anxious second, fourth, and sixth grade children were explored. (BRT)
Descriptors: Anxiety, Comparative Analysis, Elementary Education, Elementary School Students
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Kaplan, Robert – Journal of Educational Psychology, 1974
The primary finding of this study was that performance increments found with whole presentations of instructional objectives could be achieved with part presentation of objectives and text. In fact, the part presentations resulted in ever greater intentional learning than whole presentations. (Author/BJG)
Descriptors: Educational Objectives, High Schools, Incidental Learning, Instruction
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Melton, Reginald F. – Review of Educational Research, 1978
Behavioral objectives should be regarded as one of several tools available to educators. Research should be directed toward determining their advantages and limitations, as well as the conditions under which they can be used more effectively. Conditions vary depending upon student awareness of and interest in stated objectives; clarity,…
Descriptors: Advance Organizers, Behavioral Objectives, Educational Objectives, Incidental Learning
Dickinson, John – Research Quarterly, 1978
The results suggest that coding for storage in the short-term memory is effective when learning occurs under incidental conditions; however, long-term storage appears to be significantly affected by the intention to learn and the foreknowledge of a recall test. (MM)
Descriptors: Incidental Learning, Intentional Learning, Learning, Learning Motivation
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Duchastel, Philippe C.; Brown, Bobby R. – Journal of Educational Psychology, 1974
College students received either one half of the objectives for a certain test or no objectives at all. The subjects with objectives performed better than those without on posttest items referenced to their objectives (relevant learning) and less well on items not covered (incidental learning). Findings conflict with previous research. (Author/SE)
Descriptors: College Students, Educational Objectives, Incidental Learning, Intentional Learning
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