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Lightbown, Patsy M.; Spada, Nina – TESOL Quarterly, 1994
This article describes the context and conditions of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs in Quebec's French-language schools and reports on several studies of the intensive ESL classes used in some elementary schools. Research on these programs demonstrates their effectiveness in fostering English language skills and positive attitudes…
Descriptors: Elementary Education, Elementary School Students, English (Second Language), Foreign Countries
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Lightbown, Patsy M.; Spada, Nina – Canadian Modern Language Review, 1997
Describes a school in Quebec, in which students enrolled in an intensive English-as-a-Second-Language program (ESL) use English in a variety of communicative interactions inside and outside the ESL classroom. Assessment of students' performance indicates that they achieve higher levels of English than comparable students in other intensive ESL…
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Elementary School Students, English (Second Language), Foreign Countries