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Germain, Claude; Lightbown, Patsy; Netten, Joan; Spada, Nina – Canadian Modern Language Review, 2004
This article provides a historical overview and comparison of intensive English (IE) and intensive French (IF) programs in Canada. Comparisons are made in terms of the total time allotted to the intensive period, the selection of students, the number and types of schools offering the programs, the models of delivery, and the type of pedagogy and…
Descriptors: Outcomes of Education, Foreign Countries, French, English (Second Language)
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Lightbown, Patsy M.; Spada, Nina – Canadian Modern Language Review, 1991
A study compared the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) performance of secondary school students who had participated in intensive ESL instruction in grade five or six and those following regular ESL instruction in elementary school. Students with early instruction maintained the English language superiority acquired during the program. (eight…
Descriptors: Age Differences, Comparative Analysis, Elementary Education, English (Second Language)
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Lightbown, Patsy M.; Spada, Nina – Canadian Modern Language Review, 1997
Describes a school in Quebec, in which students enrolled in an intensive English-as-a-Second-Language program (ESL) use English in a variety of communicative interactions inside and outside the ESL classroom. Assessment of students' performance indicates that they achieve higher levels of English than comparable students in other intensive ESL…
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Elementary School Students, English (Second Language), Foreign Countries