ERIC Number: EJ729956
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2004
Two Failures of Spearman's Hypothesis: The GATB in Holland and the JAT in South Africa
Dolan, Conor V.; Roorda, Willemijn; Wicherts, Jelte M.
Intelligence, v32 n2 p155-173 Mar-Apr 2004
Spearman's hypothesis states that the differences between Blacks and Whites in psychometric IQ are attributable to a fundamental difference in general intelligence ("g"). To investigate this hypothesis, Jensen devised the method of correlated vectors. This method involves calculating the correlation between the factor loadings of the subtest and the observed differences in means. Although the hypothesis concerns U.S. populations, Jensen's test has also been used to investigate other groups. The aim of the present paper is to test Spearman's hypothesis in a published Dutch and a published South African data set. Both data sets were previously analyzed by Jensen's method, and the results were interpreted in support of Spearman's hypothesis. In this paper, we reanalyzed both data sets by Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MGCFA). We find that the hypothesis of factorial invariance, which implies that the same construct is measured in the groups, must be rejected. This greatly complicates any comparison of the group with respect to the test scores and makes it impossible to determine the role, if any, of "g" in explaining the observed differences in psychometric IQ. This conclusion runs counter to the conclusion that Spearman's hypothesis is supported in these data sets.
Descriptors: Psychometrics, Intelligence Quotient, Intelligence Differences, Hypothesis Testing, Intelligence Tests, Factor Analysis, Ethnic Groups, Minority Groups, Whites, Foreign Countries
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Netherlands; South Africa
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: General Aptitude Test Battery