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Aranda, Maurina L.; Lie, Richard; Selcen Guzey, S. – International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 2020
Recent education reforms highlight the importance of engineering design as a tool to improve student science learning in this new view of K-12 science education. However, little research has investigated the thought processes students use while engaging in the highly complex activity of design. Therefore, building on theories of productive…
Descriptors: Middle School Students, Science Education, Productive Thinking, Grade 6
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Baldwin, Peter; Margolis, Melissa J.; Clauser, Brian E.; Mee, Janet; Winward, Marcia – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2020
Evidence of the internal consistency of standard-setting judgments is a critical part of the validity argument for tests used to make classification decisions. The bookmark standard-setting procedure is a popular approach to establishing performance standards, but there is relatively little research that reflects on the internal consistency of the…
Descriptors: Standard Setting (Scoring), Probability, Cutting Scores, Evaluation Methods
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Newton, Paul E. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2020
Educational assessment involves eliciting, transmitting, and receiving information concerning the level of proficiency of a learner in a specified domain. With that in mind, it is perhaps surprising that the literature seems to make very little use of the signal processing metaphor. The present article begins by making a general case for greater…
Descriptors: Educational Assessment, Student Evaluation, Evaluative Thinking, Test Validity
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Cui, Yixin Kelly; Clegg, Jennifer M.; Yan, Eleanor Fang; Davoodi, Telli; Harris, Paul L.; Corriveau, Kathleen H. – Developmental Psychology, 2020
When learning about the existence of unobservable scientific phenomena such as germs or religious phenomena such as God, children are receptive to the testimony of other people. Research in Western cultures has shown that by 5 to 6 years of age, children--like adults--are confident about the existence of both scientific and religious phenomena. We…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Childrens Attitudes, Parent Attitudes, Beliefs
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Noyes, Alexander; Dunham, Yarrow; Keil, Frank C. – Developmental Psychology, 2020
When faced with entities with potentially ambiguous category membership, adult category judgments are strongly biased toward dangerous and distinctive properties. For example, a cyanide-water mixture is categorized as cyanide. We used a developmental approach to better understand this cross-domain effect, which we term the asymmetric…
Descriptors: Bias, Classification, Evaluative Thinking, Attention
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Brunyé, Tad T.; Smith, Amy M.; Hendel, Dalit; Gardony, Aaron L.; Martis, Shaina B.; Taylor, Holly A. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2020
Students learn more effectively through repeated retrieval of study materials relative to repeated exposure to the materials, a phenomenon known as the "testing effect" or "retrieval practice". This pattern has been demonstrated repeatedly with verbal materials, and more recently with visuospatial materials. The extent to which…
Descriptors: Spatial Ability, Memory, Transfer of Training, Maps
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Flemming, Danny; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike; Sinatra, Gale M. – Discourse Processes: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2020
Prior research from the field of science communication shows that, upon reading journalistic articles about novel scientific findings, readers who recognize the tentative nature of the findings rate the journalistic article that reports these findings as less credible. Apparently, readers' appraisal is influenced by misconceptions about the…
Descriptors: Persuasive Discourse, Misconceptions, Credibility, Scientific and Technical Information
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Forzani, Elena – Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 2020
Recently, many have released calls for the need to help students evaluate online information. Additionally, many have offered strategies, lists, and other heuristics for helping students evaluate. However, educators lack a method for organizing these various practices into a systematic framework that captures the complex (occurring within online…
Descriptors: Information Sources, Information Literacy, Evaluative Thinking, Online Searching
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Seiter, John S.; Seiter, Christian R. – Communication Teacher, 2020
Courses: Interpersonal Communication, Health Communication. Objectives: In this single-class activity, students gain awareness and practice in suspending judgments about "difficult" people in order to understand the reasoning behind certain objectionable behavior.
Descriptors: Interpersonal Communication, Interpersonal Relationship, Evaluative Thinking, Value Judgment
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Stover, Shawn; Mabry, Michelle – Journal of College Science Teaching, 2020
Social media platforms and other internet sites may propagate inaccurate or misleading information. This misinformation encourages speculation, rumors, and mistrust in established science. In the current study, we attempted to determine whether biology and environmental science students at a small college are able to transfer their critical…
Descriptors: Undergraduate Students, Majors (Students), Class Rank, Evaluative Thinking
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Strachan, James W. A.; Guttesen, Anna á Váli; Smith, Anika K.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Tipper, Steven P.; Cairney, Scott A. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2020
People make inferences about the trustworthiness of others based on their observed gaze behavior. Faces that consistently look toward a target location are rated as more trustworthy than those that look away from the target. Representations of trust are important for future interactions; yet little is known about how they are consolidated in…
Descriptors: Incidental Learning, Trust (Psychology), Inferences, Sleep
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Shiro, Martha; Hoff, Erika; Ribot, Krystal M. – Journal of Child Language, 2020
We examined the size, content, and use of evaluative lexis by 26 English monolingual and 20 Spanish-English bilingual 30-month-old children in interaction with their mothers. We extracted the evaluative words, defined as words referring to cognition, volition, or emotion. Controlling for overall vocabulary skills as measured by the MacArthur-Bates…
Descriptors: Cultural Differences, Child Language, Monolingualism, Bilingualism
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Byrne, Ruth M. J.; Johnson-Laird, P. N. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2020
The theory of mental models postulates that conditionals and disjunctions refer to possibilities, real or counterfactual. Factual conditionals, for example, "If there's an apple, there's a pear," parallel counterfactual ones, for example, "If there had been an apple, there would have been a pear." A similar parallel underlies…
Descriptors: Ethics, Probability, Schemata (Cognition), Logical Thinking
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Lytzerinou, Evangelia; Iordanou, Kalypso – International Journal of Science Education, 2020
The aim of the present study was to examine science and non-science education secondary school teachers' skill to evaluate arguments, and how this skill relates to their skill to construct arguments and to their perceptions about their ability to teach argumentation skills effectively. The study also examined whether teachers' argument skills and…
Descriptors: Persuasive Discourse, Self Efficacy, Secondary School Teachers, Science Teachers
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Leung, Jessica Shuk Ching – Science Education, 2020
Epistemic understanding of science is essential for critical evaluation of scientific claims. In principle, developing students' epistemic understanding would enhance students' capability in evaluating scientific claims. However, findings on this "expected" connection have been inconclusive. This paper seeks to examine this discrepancy…
Descriptors: College Students, Science Process Skills, Epistemology, Evaluative Thinking
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