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Schmidt, Benjamin; King, David; Kariuki, James – Journal of Chemical Education, 2018
A reference electrode is an essential component of all three-electrode electrochemical measurements. Common commercial reference electrodes, including the saturated calomel electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode, are expensive with the former containing toxic mercury. Cheaper alternatives have been proposed including Ag/AgCl references made…
Descriptors: Design, Computer Peripherals, Printing, Chemistry
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de Cataldo, Riccardo; Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; Fogarty, Keir H. – Journal of Chemical Education, 2018
Introductory chemistry students encounter the concept of hybrid orbitals as a transition from atomic orbitals to molecular bonding. The principal purpose of learning hybridization in the undergraduate curriculum is to impart an understanding of the origins of molecular bonding and geometry. Physical models of both individual hybrid orbitals and…
Descriptors: Introductory Courses, Science Instruction, Visualization, Molecular Structure