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Karniol, Rachel – Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 2012
Preschool children listened to a children's storybook about an animal character, with reading being terminated prior to, or after, problem resolution. The children's empathic understanding of how the animal character felt was assessed, and they were then asked to draw, with strength of pressure on the page (as evident on attached carbon copies)…
Descriptors: Animals, Preschool Children, Personality Traits, Psychological Patterns
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Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A. – Developmental Science, 2010
Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems, little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6,…
Descriptors: Emotional Problems, Models, Conditioning, Individual Differences
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Thomas, Hoben; Gilmore, Rick O. – Psychological Methods, 2004
Infant-control habituation methodology, although serving the research community well, has never been carefully analyzed. A main use is to equate infants in their level of habituation prior to experimental manipulations in a posthabituation phase. When studied analytically and with simulation, it is found to have serious difficulties. It…
Descriptors: Infants, Habituation, Infant Behavior, Evaluation Methods