ERIC Number: EJ688284
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2005-Apr
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Orientations in the Classroom: Age Differences and Academic Correlates
Lepper, Mark R.; Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Iyengar, Sheena S.
Journal of Educational Psychology, v97 n2 p184-196 May 2005
Age differences in intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and the relationships of each to academic outcomes were examined in an ethnically diverse sample of 797 3rd-grade through 8th-grade children. Using independent measures, the authors found intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to be only moderately correlated, suggesting that they may be largely orthogonal dimensions of motivation in school. Consistent with previous research, intrinsic motivation showed a significant linear decrease from 3rd grade through 8th grade and proved positively correlated with children's grades and standardized test scores at all grade levels. Extrinsic motivation showed few differences across grade levels and proved negatively correlated with academic outcomes. Surprisingly few differences based on children's sex or ethnicity were found. Causes and consequences of the disturbingly low levels of motivation for older, relative to younger, children are discussed.
Descriptors: Measures (Individuals), Age Differences, Standardized Tests, Student Motivation, Goal Orientation, Gender Differences, Ethnicity, Academic Achievement, Outcomes of Education
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Grade 3; Grade 4; Grade 5; Grade 6; Grade 7; Grade 8
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