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Meredith, William2
Tisak, John1
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Meredith, William – Psychometrika, 1993
A conceptual framework is provided for thinking about measurement invariance (or bias), and conditions are demonstrated under which invariance can occur. Tools are suggested for addressing such issues as fairness in employment testing, salary equity, and cross-sectional developmental change. Strict factorial invariance is required for…
Descriptors: Change, Equal Opportunities (Jobs), Equations (Mathematics), Factor Analysis
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Tisak, John; Meredith, William – Psychometrika, 1989
A longitudinal factor analysis model that is entirely exploratory is proposed for use with multiple populations. Factorial collapse, period/practice effects, and an invariant and/or stationary factor pattern are allowed. The model is formulated stochastically and implemented via a stage-wise EM algorithm. (TJH)
Descriptors: Algorithms, Factor Analysis, Longitudinal Studies, Maximum Likelihood Statistics