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Muthen, Bengt O. – Psychometrika, 1989
A method for detecting instructional sensitivity (item bias) in test items is proposed. This method extends item response theory by allowing for item-specific variation in measurement relations across students' varying instructional backgrounds. Item bias detection is a by-product. Traditional and new methods are compared. (SLD)
Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Educational Background, Educational Opportunities, Elementary Secondary Education
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Ogasawara, Haruhiko – Psychometrika, 1996
Rasch's multiplicative Poisson model is extended so that parameters for individuals in the prior gamma distribution have continuous covariates. Parameters for individuals are integrated out, and hyperparameters in the prior distribution are estimated by a numerical method separately from difficulty parameters that are treated as fixed parameters…
Descriptors: Ability, Equations (Mathematics), Estimation (Mathematics), Item Response Theory
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Bollen, Kenneth A. – Psychometrika, 1996
An alternative two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimator of the parameters in LISREL type models is proposed and contrasted with existing estimators. The new 2SLS estimator allows observed and latent variables to originate from nonnormal distributions, is consistent, has a known asymptotic covariance matrix, and can be estimated with standard…
Descriptors: Computer Software, Equations (Mathematics), Estimation (Mathematics), Factor Analysis
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Cliff, Norman; Donoghue, John R. – Psychometrika, 1992
A test theory using only ordinal assumptions is presented, based on the idea that the test items are a sample from a universe of items. The sum across items of the ordinal relations for a pair of persons on the universe items is analogous to a true score. (SLD)
Descriptors: Equations (Mathematics), Estimation (Mathematics), Item Response Theory, Item Sampling
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Snijders, Tom A. B. – Psychometrika, 1991
A complete enumeration method and a Monte Carlo method are presented to calculate the probability distribution of arbitrary statistics of adjacency matrices when these matrices have the uniform distribution conditional on given row and column sums, and possibly on a given set of structural zeros. (SLD)
Descriptors: Computer Simulation, Equations (Mathematics), Mathematical Models, Matrices
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Nishisato, Shizuhiko – Psychometrika, 1996
Issues related to dual scaling are explored, and it is illustrated that quantification theory still contains a number of missing links between its mathematics and the validity of applications. Normed versus projected weights, problems of multidimensional unfolding, and option standardization are among the questions requiring study. (SLD)
Descriptors: Equations (Mathematics), Research Methodology, Responses, Scaling
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Zhang, Jinming; Stout, William – Psychometrika, 1999
Investigates the structure of item-pair conditional covariances given a unidimensional latent composite using a generalized semiparametric-modeling approach. Conditional covariances are shown to be highly informative about the latent dimensionality required to achieve local independence. Uses the new approach to justify the DIMTEST procedure. (SLD)
Descriptors: Equations (Mathematics), Item Response Theory, Models, Nonparametric Statistics
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Meredith, William – Psychometrika, 1993
A conceptual framework is provided for thinking about measurement invariance (or bias), and conditions are demonstrated under which invariance can occur. Tools are suggested for addressing such issues as fairness in employment testing, salary equity, and cross-sectional developmental change. Strict factorial invariance is required for…
Descriptors: Change, Equal Opportunities (Jobs), Equations (Mathematics), Factor Analysis
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De Soete, Geert; Heiser, Willem J. – Psychometrika, 1993
A latent class unfolding model is developed for single stimulus preference ratings. One advantage is the possibility of testing the spatial unfolding model against the unconstrained latent class model for rating data. The model is applied to data about party preferences of members of the Dutch parliament. (SLD)
Descriptors: Equations (Mathematics), Foreign Countries, Government Employees, Legislators
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Bockenholt, Ulf – Psychometrika, 1990
This paper proposes a generalization of Thurstonian probabilistic choice models for analyzing both multiple preference responses and their relationships. The approach is illustrated by modeling data from two multivariate preference experiments. Preliminary data analyses show that the extension can yield an adequate representation of multivariate…
Descriptors: Equations (Mathematics), Individual Differences, Mathematical Models, Multidimensional Scaling
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Muthen, Bengt O. – Psychometrika, 1989
The problems posed for latent variable analysis by populations with different sets of parameter values are discussed. An overview of methodology to address heterogeneity is presented, including a review of structural modeling by the multiple indicator-multiple causes model and the use of the LISCOMP computer program. (SLD)
Descriptors: Data Analysis, Equations (Mathematics), Estimation (Mathematics), Mathematical Models