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Dixon, Kathryn – AERA Online Paper Repository, 2016
Language education policy has been a controversial and ongoing issue throughout the U.S., particularly in the state of Texas. This paper reports on a frame analysis of the five bills that amended the Texas Education Code to implement or expand bilingual education and English as a second language programs. Analysis focused on problems and solutions…
Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational Policy, English Only Movement, English (Second Language)
Yturriago, Judith Kwiat; Gil-Garcia, Ana – Online Submission, 2010
In schools across the country, many students who consistently score below their white peers on state standardized tests are English language learners (ELLs). Under No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the reauthorized ESEA under President Obama, all 50 states are and will be required to have English language proficiency (ELP) standards and state…
Descriptors: Schools of Education, Federal Legislation, Linguistics, State Standards
Aber, Lawrence; Chaudry, Ajay – Urban Institute (NJ1), 2010
Children and youth vary in their developmental health due to differences in family economic security and exposure to toxic stress. The economic downturn has increased the challenges facing low-income children. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) and the President's first budget made significant down-payments on investments in…
Descriptors: Human Capital, Economic Climate, Low Income Groups, Politics of Education
Holley, Freda M. – 1986
This reaction paper presented at a conference on compensatory education begins with reviews of three studies prepared for the program and staffing session of the conference and dealing respectively with student-to-instructor ratios, instructional setting, and summer programs. The paper then presents the view that huge gains in achievement will not…
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Accountability, Cognitive Development, Compensatory Education