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Sedere, Upali M. – Online Submission, 2010
Stress is simply the body's response to changes that create taxing demands. When one cannot cope with it, these cause distresses. Stress is not always bad. The manageable stress motivates individuals to achieve what he/she wishes to achieve. When one can cope with stress it is called "eustress" which is good. Education in many countries…
Descriptors: Failure, Fear, Anxiety, Stress Management
Winters, Marcus; Greene, Jay P.; Ritter, Gary; Marsh, Ryan – National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008
This paper examines evidence from a performance-pay program implemented in five Little Rock, Arkansas elementary schools between 2004 and 2007. Using a differences-in-differences approach, the evidence shows that students whose teachers were eligible for performance pay made substantially larger test score gains in math, reading, and language than…
Descriptors: Elementary Education, Academic Achievement, Scores, Teacher Salaries
Kim, Dong-In; Brennan, Robert; Kolen, Michael – 2002
Four equating methods were compared using four equating criteria: first-order equity (FOE), second-order equity (SOE), conditional mean squared error (CMSE) difference, and the equipercentile equating property. The four methods were: (1) three parameter logistic (3PL) model true score equating; (2) 3PL observed score equating; (3) beta 4 true…
Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Criteria, Elementary Education, Elementary School Students
Fan, Xitao; Yin, Ping – 2001
The literature on measurement reliability shows the consensus that group heterogeneity with regard to the trait being measured is a factor that affects the sample measurement reliability, but the degree of such effect is not entirely clear. Sample performance also has the potential to affect measurement reliability because of its effect on the…
Descriptors: Error of Measurement, Measurement Techniques, Reliability, Sample Size
Abedi, Jamal – 2001
Validity and reliability issues in standardized testing of students of limited English proficiency (LEP) were studied. Existing data from four different school sites were obtained for LEP and non-LEP students for three different standardized tests, the Stanford Achievement Tests (Ninth edition), the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, and the Language…
Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Correlation, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language)