ERIC Number: EJ1004588
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Feb
Gender Equity Issues in CTE and STEM Education: Economic and Social Implications
Toglia, Thomas V.
Tech Directions, v72 n7 p14-17 Feb 2013
Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an economic perspective, the traditional female careers into which significant numbers of girls are directed pay substantially lower wages than nontraditional fields. For example, in the field of cosmetology, in which girls represent 98% of the students, workers typically earn a median wage of $9.52 per hour, yet in the electricians' field, in which girls comprise only 6% of students, the median earnings are more than twice as much, at $20.33 per hour (National Women's Law Center, 2005). In terms of social consequences of gender inequity, for example, Daines, Hartenstein, and Birch (2000) state that the lack of access to work and education or training opportunities for women "is a societal problem that results in underdeveloped human resources....It also limits a nation's development, for a nation's ability to have a healthy economy directly relates to developing its human resources" (p. 22). Strategies that could broaden the scope of nontraditional opportunities for girls and women are offered.
Descriptors: Vocational Education, STEM Education, Sex Fairness, Females, Nontraditional Occupations, Enrollment Trends, Federal Legislation, Educational Legislation, Gender Discrimination, Career Choice, Influences, Equal Education, Disproportionate Representation
Prakken Publications. 832 Phoenix Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48108. Tel: 734-975-2800; Fax: 734-975-2787; Web site: http://www.techdirections.com/
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Postsecondary Education; Secondary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Carl D Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act 1998; Education Amendments 1972; Title IX Education Amendments 1972