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ERIC Number: EJ1201836
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2019-Jan
Pages: 7
Abstractor: ERIC
ISSN: ISSN-1072-0839
What, How, Who: Developing Mathematical Discourse
Buchheister, Kelley; Jackson, Christa; Taylor, Cynthia E.
Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, v24 n4 p202-208 Jan 2019
With an increased focus on using social discourse to enhance students' mathematical thinking and reasoning (NCTM 2014, Staples and King 2017), teachers are looking for discussion strategies that encourage middlelevel students to make sense of mathematical concepts. However, structuring these valuable discussions is complex. Teachers must carefully consider what tasks provide meaningful opportunities to explore ideas, generate hypotheses, and promote questions within a collaborative environment. Then, teachers need to consider how to structure the activity to encourage discussions and incorporate responses that contribute to understanding specific mathematical objectives. Additionally, teachers must select who will speak to "advance the mathematical storyline of the lesson" (NCTM 2014). By intentionally focusing on these elements in mathematics instruction, middle-grades teachers can develop a classroom culture that not only emphasizes sense making but also values the intellectual capacity that students bring to the classroom (GutiƩrrez 2013; Lemons-Smith 2008). In this article, the authors describe how teachers can promote meaningful discussions using the what-how-who structure while giving students opportunities to make sense of mathematical ideas within a social context.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 1906 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191. Tel: 800-235-7566; Tel: 703-620-9840; Fax: 703-476-2570; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Middle Schools; Secondary Education; Junior High Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A