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Kitao, S. Kathleen; Kitao, Kenji – 1996
A good knowledge of English vocabulary is important for anyone who wants to use the language, so knowledge of vocabulary is often tested. A test may test one or all of the types of vocabulary (active spoken, active written, passive listening, and passive reading), but the test maker should be aware of the differences among the types and which is…
Descriptors: English (Second Language), Foreign Countries, Knowledge Level, Language Proficiency
Kitao, Kenji; Kitao, S. Kathleen – 1996
After tests are administered, they are scored and the scores are given back to the students. If the real purpose of the test is to improve student learning, simply returning the scores is not sufficient. The first step in evaluating test results is to be sure that the test has tested the intended concepts and content. Calculating the mean and the…
Descriptors: Difficulty Level, English (Second Language), Evaluation Methods, Feedback
Kitao, S. Kathleen; Kitao, Kenji – 1996
Testing English listening skills involves a variety of skills. Sounds are sometimes difficult to discriminate in a language that is not one's native tongue, so testing phoneme discrimination, the ability to tell the difference between sounds, is important. Picture choice items are a good way to select among alternatives to demonstrate…
Descriptors: English (Second Language), Foreign Countries, Language Proficiency, Language Tests
Kitao, S. Kathleen; Kitao, Kenji – 1996
Testing language skills is difficult, but testing writing, and the writing of students of English as a Second Language, poses two major problems. The first is making decisions about the matter of control, objectivity of the evaluation, and naturalness in the writing test. The second major problem is that, if the test is done in a way that cannot…
Descriptors: Difficulty Level, English (Second Language), Essays, Foreign Countries
Kitao, S. Kathleen; Kitao, Kenji – 1996
Although testing language has traditionally taken the form of testing knowledge about language, the idea of testing communicative competence is becoming recognized as being of great importance in second language learning. Communicative language tests are intended to be a measure of how the testees are able to use language in real life situations.…
Descriptors: Communicative Competence (Languages), English (Second Language), Foreign Countries, Knowledge Level
Kitao, S. Kathleen; Kitao, Kenji – 1996
Speaking a second language is probably the most difficult skill to test in that it involves a combination of skills that may have no correlation with each other, and which do not lend themselves to objective testing. In addition, what can be understood is a function of the listener's background and ability as well as those of the speaker. Another…
Descriptors: Communicative Competence (Languages), Educational Assessment, Foreign Countries, Language Fluency
Kitao, S. Kathleen; Kitao, Kenji – 1996
The testing of grammar is one of the mainstays of language testing, since it can be argued that a basic knowledge of grammar underlies the ability to use language to express meaning. The most common way of testing grammatical knowledge is the multiple-choice test, and the most common multiple-choice item is one in which the student selects a word…
Descriptors: English (Second Language), Foreign Countries, Grammar, Language Proficiency
Kitao, S. Kathleen; Kitao, Kenji – 1996
Of the four language skills, reading is probably tested most often, and it may seem to be the easiest to test. However, testing reading proficiency has its difficulties, and the test constructor must be aware of several issues. Reading involves a number of skills, and the number and complexity of these must be recognized. Choosing the text to test…
Descriptors: Difficulty Level, English (Second Language), Foreign Countries, Language Proficiency