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ERIC Number: EJ1058695
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Pages: 4
Abstractor: ERIC
ISSN: ISSN-1555-6913
Improving Response Rates among Students with Orthopedic and Multiple Disabilities
Wilkens, Christian P.; Kuntzler, Patrice M.; Cardenas, Shaun; O'Malley, Eileen; Phillips, Carolyn; Singer, Jacqueline; Stoeger, Alex; Kindler, Keith
Journal of the International Association of Special Education, v15 n1 p94-97 Spr 2014
One challenge teachers of students with orthopedic and multiple disabilities face is providing sufficient time and opportunity to communicate. This challenge is universal across countries, schools, and settings: teachers want students to communicate because communication lies at the core of what makes us human. Yet students with orthopedic and multiple disabilities often communicate laboriously, investing great effort or using extensive class time to communicate their views. When verbal or written expression is difficult or communication devices become frustrating, even the best-intentioned teachers may fill wait time with words or avoid student response altogether. This article presents four ways to help teachers manage, if not entirely solve, the challenges of limited time and the need for extended, rich responses among students with orthopedic and multiple disabilities. The techniques described in this article were developed and refined at Henry Viscardi School -- a specialized school for students with orthopedic and multiple disabilities in the United States, just outside of New York City. These techniques are adaptable to the individual needs of students, are useful across grade and subject areas, and should prove useful across school systems and contexts. They are organized from in-class to out-of-class techniques. The goal of all of these techniques is to improve student communication; readers should plan to differentiate and adjust each as the needs of their individual students require.
International Association of Special Education. c/o College of Education, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 5774, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5774. Tel: 928-523-8979; Fax: 928-523-1929; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Guides - Non-Classroom; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Teachers
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: New York