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Leydesdorff, Loet; Etzkowitz, Henry; Kushnir, Duncan – Industry and Higher Education, 2016
Following a pause, with a relatively flat rate, from 1998 to 2008, the long-term trend of university patenting rising as a share of all patenting has resumed, driven by the internationalization of academic entrepreneurship and the persistence of US university technology transfer. The authors disaggregate this recent growth in university patenting…
Descriptors: Global Approach, Universities, Intellectual Property, Technology Transfer
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Etzkowitz, Henry; Etzkowitz, Alex – Industry and Higher Education, 2015
Although innovation policy usually follows the business cycle, it is both desirable and possible to reverse this trend. Perhaps the most telling commentary on contemporary Europe is the silence that met the presentation, at the recent European Parliament Innovation Conference, of the Chinese R&D spending curve passing the European Union curve…
Descriptors: Innovation, Educational Finance, Educational Policy, Knowledge Economy