ERIC Number: EJ1120988
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016
Abstractor: As Provided
Comparing the Gender Gap in Educational Attainment: The Impact of Emancipatory Contexts in 33 Cohorts across 33 Countries
van Hek, Margriet; Kraaykamp, Gerbert; Wolbers, Maarten H. J.
Educational Research and Evaluation, v22 n5-6 p260-282 2016
Nowadays, women outperform men in educational attainment in many countries. Still, large variation between countries remains. Emancipatory contexts in which individuals are raised might explain these differences in male-female educational attainment, both over time and across countries. This study examines individual and contextual factors that affect educational attainment of men and women for cohorts born between 1950 and 1982 across 33 countries. Possible explanations for differentiation over time and across countries relate to women's labour market participation and an emancipatory normative climate, indicated by degree of religiosity. We employ multilevel models on data (N = 138,498) from 6 waves of the European Social Survey and the US General Social Survey (2002-2012) to test our hypotheses. Results show that a higher level of female labour market participation in early adolescence improves women's performance in education, whereas high levels of religiosity during that phase negatively affect women's educational attainment.
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Comparative Education, Gender Differences, Educational Attainment, Cohort Analysis, Context Effect, Labor Market, Employment Patterns, Equal Education, Religious Factors, Hierarchical Linear Modeling, Surveys, Hypothesis Testing, Early Adolescents
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Information Analyses; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Belgium; Bulgaria; Switzerland; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Germany; Denmark; Estonia; Spain; Finland; France; United Kingdom; Greece; Croatia; Hungary; Ireland; Israel; Iceland; Italy; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Latvia; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russia; Sweden; Slovenia; Slovakia; Ukraine; United States