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ERIC Number: ED505689
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Dec
Pages: 174
Abstractor: ERIC
Reaching the Underserved: Complementary Models of Effective Schooling
DeStefano, Joseph; Moore, Audrey-Marie Schuh; Balwanz, David; Hartwell, Ash
Academy for Educational Development
Many countries that have undergone expansion of access to public education still face significant disparities in school enrollment and attendance rates at sub-national levels, and fail to reach a high proportion of children who are outside of the government system. Completion and student learning have also continued to be system-wide challenges that many Ministries of Education struggle to address. Educational Policy, Systems Development, and Management (EQUIP2) identified nine case examples of complementary, community-based approaches to schooling from around the world, and developed a research methodology for analyzing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of those models. Data were gathered on student enrollment, completion and learning, management, governance, organization, costs and financing. Cases demonstrate that complementary education programs can provide a unique and critical role to addressing Education for All (EFA) goals, particularly for disadvantaged and underserved populations. Additionally, the results of complementary education program are frequently equal to or better than to the government schools in terms of improving access, completion, and learning outcomes. Four features are identified as critical to the success of complementary programs: (1) Locally recruited teachers and ongoing, regular supervision and training; (2) School-based decision making and community-based management and governance; (3) Small schools located close to the communities they serve; and (4) Mother tongue instruction is used to deliver a simplified curriculum devoted to basic literacy and numeracy skills. Cases studies are included for Afghanistan Home-Based Schools, Afghanistan Community Schools, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) Primary Schools, Egypt Community Schools, Ghana School for Life, Guatemala PRONADE, Honduras Educatodos, Mali Community Schools, and Zambia Community Schools. References and unnumbered figures and tables are included by individual chapter.
Academy for Educational Development. 1825 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009-5721. Tel: 202-884-8000; Fax: 202-884-8400; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: United States Agency for International Development, Academy for Educational Development
Authoring Institution: Academy for Educational Development
Identifiers - Location: Afghanistan; Bangladesh; Egypt; Ghana; Guatemala; Honduras; Mali; Zambia