ERIC Number: EJ1202838
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2019-Feb
Abstractor: As Provided
Inhibition, Shifting and Updating in Relation to Psychometric Intelligence across Ability Groups in the Psychiatric Population
Biesmans, K. E.; Aken, L.; Frunt, E. M. J.; Wingbermühle, P. A. M.; Egger, J. I. M.
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, v63 n2 p149-160 Feb 2019
Background: Assessment of intelligence and executive function (EF) is common in complex neuropsychiatric practice. Although previous studies have shown that EF and intelligence are related, it is unknown whether these constructs relate to one another in a similar manner across different ability groups (mild intellectual disability, borderline intellectual disability and normal/high intelligence). This study therefore examines the relation between three EFs (inhibition, shifting and updating) and intelligence in a heterogeneous psychiatric sample. It is hypothesised that the strength of the relation between intelligence and the three EFs decreases when the level of intelligence increases, in accordance with Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns. Methods: In a cross-sectional, between and within subject design, one of the three intelligence tests (Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--third and fourth editions) and several EF tests (Stroop Colour-Word Test, Trail Making Test and Spatial Working Memory task) were administered to 250 neuropsychiatric inpatients and outpatients (M[subscript age] = 39.8, standard deviation = 14.3, 52.8% male). Based upon their full-scale IQ score, patients were divided into three ability groups (mild intellectual disability, borderline intellectual disability or normal/high intelligence). The relation between EF and intelligence was assessed through analyses of the correlation pattern; groups were compared using analysis of covariance. Results: Analyses showed significant correlations between the constructs of EF and intelligence. A significant interaction effect was found for shifting, with highest correlations in the normal to high intelligence group, but not for inhibition and updating. Conclusions: Results support a specific role for shifting in this EF-intelligence relation. The correlational pattern of updating and intelligence, as well as the differential relation of shifting and intelligence across ability groups, suggests that EF tasks may not measure distinct EFs in lower intellectual ability but rely on cognitive primitives such as processing speed. EF tasks can be considered less valid indicators of EF ability. Implications in terms of the need for development of specific tasks to measure cognition in low intellectual ability are discussed.
Descriptors: Intelligence, Executive Function, Psychiatry, Correlation, Mild Intellectual Disability, Inhibition, Case Studies, Intelligence Tests, Testing, Patients, Scores, Comparative Analysis, Cognitive Processes, Color, Interference (Learning), Reaction Time, Visual Stimuli, Visual Measures, Neuropsychology, Psychological Testing, Adults, Adolescents
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Stroop Color Word Test; Trail Making Test; Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test; Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale