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ERIC Number: ED517885
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 8
Abstractor: ERIC
Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards: An Embedded Child and Family Study of Conditional Cash Transfers
Morris, Pamela; Aber, J. Lawrence; Wolf, Sharon; Berg, Juliette
Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness
This study builds on and informs ecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006) by focusing on the contextual processes by which individual developmental trajectories can be altered. Ecological theory posits that children are embedded in a nested and interactive set of interrelated contexts beginning with the micro-system (the most immediate setting in which the individual is embedded), to the interactions between microsystems (the meso-system), and to the more distal exo- and macro-systems. The bioecological model (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998; 2006) also argues for the power of proximal processes--the interactions between persons and objects in their environment. Building on this theoretical framework, interventions that target and achieve alterations in the proximal processes between persons in their microsystem should be the most powerful to change individual developmental trajectories. This study will shed light on the effects of the Family Rewards program through this lens. The core findings show that the program substantially improved families' economic position in the first two years, with the program boosting average monthly income by over $400 for families with the oldest children. For the 9th grade children that are the focus of this embedded study, the core study found positive impacts on education outcomes (based on administrative educational records; Riccio et al., 2010). While there were very few effects when all children are considered together, among ninth-graders who had scored at or above the basic proficiency level on their eighth-grade standardized tests prior to random assignment, the program led to a reduction of 6 percentage points in the proportion of students who repeated the ninth grade, a 15 percentage point increase in the likelihood of having a 95 percent or better attendance rate (in Year 2), an 8 percentage point increase in the likelihood of earning at least 22 credits (needed to remain on track for on-time graduation), and an increase of 6 percentage points in the likelihood of passing at least two Regents exams. (Contains 2 exhibits.)
Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness. 2040 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208. Tel: 202-495-0920; Fax: 202-640-4401; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 9; High Schools; Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness (SREE)
Identifiers - Location: New York