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Ding, Yi; Liu, Ru-De; Xu, Le; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Dake – Journal of Educational Research, 2017
The authors' aim was to examine the relations among mental multiplication, working memory load (WML), and automaticity by alternating the difficulty level of task characteristics. In Experiment 1, involving 30 fifth-grade students with mixed abilities, a 2 (WML) × 2 (automaticity) design was utilized. In Experiment 2, involving 21 high-achieving…
Descriptors: Short Term Memory, Multiplication, Correlation, Grade 5
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Zhang, Dake; Ding, Yi; Lee, Soo; Chen, Jinsong – Journal of Educational Research, 2017
Low mathematics achievement is a persistent problem in the United States, and multiplication is a fundamental area in which many students manifest learning difficulties. This study examined the strategic developmental levels of multiplication problem solving among 121 elementary school students in Grades 3 through 5. A latent class analysis…
Descriptors: Multiplication, Problem Solving, Strategic Planning, Multivariate Analysis
Zhang, Dake; Wang, Qiu; Ding, Yi; Liu, Jeremy Jian – Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2014
According to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, geometry and spatial sense are fundamental components of mathematics learning. However, learning disabilities (LD) research has shown that many K-12 students encounter particular geometry difficulties (GD). This study examined the effect of an integrated object representation (IOR)…
Descriptors: Geometry, Learning Disabilities, Elementary School Students, Spatial Ability