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Toyama, Yukie; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Pearson, P. David – Educational Assessment, 2017
This study investigated the complexity of leveled passages used in four classroom reading assessments. A total of 167 passages leveled for Grades 1-6 from these assessments were analyzed using four analytical tools of text complexity. More traditional, two-factor measures of text complexity found a general trend of fairly consistent across-grade…
Descriptors: Reading Materials, Reading Skills, Student Evaluation, Difficulty Level
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Kim, Jinok; Herman, Joan L. – Educational Assessment, 2009
In this three-state study, the authors estimate the magnitudes of achievement gaps between English learner (EL) students and their non-EL peers, while avoiding typical caveats in cross-sectional studies. The authors further compare the observed achievement gaps across three distinct dimensions (content areas, grades, and states) and report…
Descriptors: English (Second Language), Second Language Learning, Achievement Gap, Academic Achievement