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Bloom, Howard S.; Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn; Black, Alison Rebeck – MDRC, 2005
This paper examines how controlling statistically for baseline covariates (especially pretests) improves the precision of studies that randomize schools to measure the impacts of educational interventions on student achievement. Part I of the paper introduces the concepts, issues, and options involved. Parts II and III present empirical findings…
Descriptors: Program Effectiveness, Reading Achievement, Mathematics Achievement, Research Methodology