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Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy – Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 2012
Authors examined the relationship between individual differences in L1 print exposure and differences in early L1 skills and later L2 aptitude, L2 proficiency, and L2 classroom achievement. Participants were administered measures of L1 word decoding, spelling, phonemic awareness, reading comprehension, receptive vocabulary, and listening…
Descriptors: Native Language, Emergent Literacy, Second Languages, Language Aptitude