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Hung, Man; Smith, William A.; Voss, Maren W.; Franklin, Jeremy D.; Gu, Yushan; Bounsanga, Jerry – Education and Urban Society, 2020
This study examined factors contributing to achievement gaps between White and African American students in 2,868 diverse school districts across the United States. Using pooled data across five school years (2008-2013), six grade levels (grades third to eighth, which typically include students aged 8 years-14 years) and two different subjects…
Descriptors: Achievement Gap, White Students, African American Students, Racial Differences
Kuhfeld, Megan – Phi Delta Kappan, 2019
It has been common knowledge for decades that poor and working-class students tend to experience "summer learning loss," a drop in performance between spring and fall that serves to widen the gap between students. However, new research shows that the reality of summer learning loss is more complex. Megan Kuhfeld draws on data from the…
Descriptors: At Risk Students, Achievement Gains, Academic Achievement, Reading Achievement