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Torppa, Minna; Niemi, Pekka; Vasalampi, Kati; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Tolvanen, Asko; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija – Child Development, 2020
This study examines associations between leisure reading and reading skills in data of 2,525 students followed from age 7 to 16. As a step further from traditional cross-lagged analysis, a random intercept cross-lagged panel model was used to identify within-person associations of leisure reading (books, magazines, newspapers, and digital…
Descriptors: Leisure Time, Recreational Reading, Reading Skills, Correlation
Kuhfeld, Megan – Phi Delta Kappan, 2019
It has been common knowledge for decades that poor and working-class students tend to experience "summer learning loss," a drop in performance between spring and fall that serves to widen the gap between students. However, new research shows that the reality of summer learning loss is more complex. Megan Kuhfeld draws on data from the…
Descriptors: At Risk Students, Achievement Gains, Academic Achievement, Reading Achievement