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Steele, Jennifer L.; Slater, Robert O.; Zamarro, Gema; Miller, Trey; Li, Jennifer; Burkhauser, Susan; Bacon, Michael – American Educational Research Journal, 2017
Using data from seven cohorts of language immersion lottery applicants in a large, urban school district, we estimate the causal effects of immersion programs on students' test scores in reading, mathematics, and science and on English learners' (EL) reclassification. We estimate positive intent-to-treat (ITT) effects on reading performance in…
Descriptors: Immersion Programs, Reading Achievement, Mathematics Achievement, Science Achievement