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ERIC Number: ED568609
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Pages: 156
Abstractor: As Provided
ISBN: 978-1-3038-5789-8
The Effect of Cognitive- and Metacognitive-Based Instruction on Problem Solving by Elementary Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties
Grizzle-Martin, Tamieka
ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Walden University
Children who struggle in mathematics may also lack cognitive awareness in mathematical problem solving. The cognitively-driven program IMPROVE, a multidimensional method for teaching mathematics, has been shown to be helpful for students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD). Guided by cognitive theory, the purpose of this quasi-experimental posttest only study was to examine the effectiveness of IMPROVE on the mathematical achievement of students with MLD. Twenty-four Grade 5 students who fell below the 50th percentile rank on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills were identified for participation in this study. Twelve students were randomly selected for instruction using IMPROVE, and 12 others were instructed in a non-IMPROVE classroom. An ANCOVA was conducted to determine if differences on the 2013 Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) existed between the IMPROVE and the non-IMPROVE groups. Based on CRCT math achievement posttest scores, students with MLD who participated in the IMPROVE program significantly outperformed students with MLD who did not participate in the IMPROVE program, [F[subscript (1, 21)] = 4.54, p = 0.045, ?[superscript 2] = 0.18]. Incorporating IMPROVE as part of mathematical problem solving assists students in practicing higher-order thinking skills. This type of participation in mathematics encourages students to become active participants in their world. Mathematics help students visualize, explore, and manipulate ideas and representations that can be generalized in a society of changing realities. These findings will inform the efforts of mathematics educators, who may use these results to bolster their mathematics curriculum for students with MLD. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 5; Intermediate Grades; Middle Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Georgia Criterion Referenced Tests; Iowa Tests of Basic Skills