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Schmidt, Isabelle; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis – British Journal of Educational Psychology, 2018
Background: Achievement in math and achievement in verbal school subjects are more strongly correlated than the respective academic self-concepts. The internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986, "Am. Educ. Res. J.," 23, 129) explains this finding by social and dimensional comparison processes. We investigated a…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Elementary School Students, Secondary School Students, Self Concept