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Girvan, Erik J.; McIntosh, Kent; Smolkowski, Keith – Educational Psychologist, 2019
There are substantial racial disparities in school discipline but little agreement on how best to measure them. The choice of metric can influence conclusions about the magnitude of racial discipline disproportionality and intervention effectiveness. This article describes 2 common (risk ratio, risk difference) and 3 relatively novel (standardized…
Descriptors: Discipline, Racial Differences, Racial Bias, Disproportionate Representation
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Rampey, B. D.; Faircloth, S. C.; Whorton, R. P.; Deaton, J. – National Center for Education Statistics, 2019
The National Indian Education Study (NIES) is designed to describe the condition of education for fourth- and eighth-grade American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students in the United States. NIES is conducted under the direction of the National Center for Education Statistics on behalf of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Indian…
Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indian Students, Alaska Natives, Grade 4