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Girvan, Erik J.; McIntosh, Kent; Smolkowski, Keith – Educational Psychologist, 2019
There are substantial racial disparities in school discipline but little agreement on how best to measure them. The choice of metric can influence conclusions about the magnitude of racial discipline disproportionality and intervention effectiveness. This article describes 2 common (risk ratio, risk difference) and 3 relatively novel (standardized…
Descriptors: Discipline, Racial Differences, Racial Bias, Disproportionate Representation