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ERIC Number: EJ1200306
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2018
Pages: 15
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1042-0541
Effects of Question Difficulty and Post-Question Wait-Time on Cognitive Engagement: A Psychophysiological Analysis
Gilliam, Kyle C.; Baker, Matt; Rayfield, John; Ritz, Rudy; Cummins, R. Glenn
Journal of Agricultural Education, v59 n4 p286-300 2018
Educational research surrounding teaching methods and accepted practices is continually needed to improve teaching and teacher preparation programs. The revised Bloom's Taxonomy is often used by teachers in question development. The effectiveness of these questions are often dependent, not on the question alone, but also in how the question is presented. One component of implementing effective questioning is the use of wait-time. Wait-time is the amount of time a teacher waits for a student response after having posed a question. Experts have recommended wait times ranging from three and five seconds in length. The purpose of this study was to utilize a psychophysiological measure of cognitive resource allocation (heart rate) to provide evidence of the magnitude and duration of cognitive engagement elicited after posing questions and to determine an appropriate amount of post-question wait-time needed by undergraduate agricultural education students. Study results suggest that students were cognitively engaged for two to three seconds during the wait-time that followed a question. Additionally, students re-engaged cognitively after eight seconds of wait-time. The results of this study provide unique evidence in assisting teachers with effectively employing wait-time strategies.
American Association for Agricultural Education. P.O. Box 7607, Department of Agricultural and Extension Education, Raleigh, NC 27695. Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Texas (Lubbock)