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Dahl, Tove Irene; Ludvigsen, Susanne – Modern Language Journal, 2014
In what ways do native language (NL) speakers and foreign language (FL) learners differ in understanding the same messages delivered with or without gestures? To answer this question, seventh- and eighth-grade NL and FL learners of English in the United States and Norway were shown a video of a speaker describing, in English, a cartoon image that…
Descriptors: Role, Nonverbal Communication, Second Language Learning, Listening Comprehension