ERIC Number: EJ1119999
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016
Abstractor: As Provided
Moving beyond Univariate Post-Hoc Testing in Exercise Science: A Primer on Descriptive Discriminate Analysis
Barton, Mitch; Yeatts, Paul E.; Henson, Robin K.; Martin, Scott B.
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, v87 n4 p365-375 2016
There has been a recent call to improve data reporting in kinesiology journals, including the appropriate use of univariate and multivariate analysis techniques. For example, a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with univariate post hocs and a Bonferroni correction is frequently used to investigate group differences on multiple dependent variables. However, this univariate approach decreases power, increases the risk for Type 1 error, and contradicts the rationale for conducting multivariate tests in the first place. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide a user-friendly primer on conducting descriptive discriminant analysis (DDA), which is a post-hoc strategy to MANOVA that takes into account the complex relationships among multiple dependent variables. Method: A real-world example using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences syntax and data from 1,095 middle school students on their body composition and body image are provided to explain and interpret the results from DDA. Results: While univariate post hocs increased the risk for Type 1 error to 76%, the DDA identified which dependent variables contributed to group differences and which groups were different from each other. For example, students in the very lean and Healthy Fitness Zone categories for body mass index experienced less pressure to lose weight, more satisfaction with their body, and higher physical self-concept than the Needs Improvement Zone groups. However, perceived pressure to gain weight did not contribute to group differences because it was a suppressor variable. Conclusion: Researchers are encouraged to use DDA when investigating group differences on multiple correlated dependent variables to determine which variables contributed to group differences.
Descriptors: Exercise Physiology, Discriminant Analysis, Multivariate Analysis, Testing, Body Composition, Self Concept, Statistics, Error Correction, Statistical Analysis, Middle School Students, Grade 6, Grade 7, Grade 8, Physical Education, Health Related Fitness
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Middle Schools; Secondary Education; Junior High Schools; Grade 6; Intermediate Grades; Elementary Education; Grade 7; Grade 8
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: United States