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Toland, Sean H.; Mills, Daniel J.; Kohyama, Megumi – JALT CALL Journal, 2016
In universities throughout Japan, English language learners are required to stand in front of their peers and make a presentation with the aid of software such as Microsoft PowerPoint. This type of public speaking activity can often be an anxiety-inducing, glorified reading or memorization exercise of text-heavy slides that fails to meet the…
Descriptors: English (Second Language), Second Language Learning, Anxiety, Memorization