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Aryadoust, Vahid – International Journal of Listening, 2012
This article investigates a version of the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) listening test for evidence of differential item functioning (DIF) based on gender, nationality, age, and degree of previous exposure to the test. Overall, the listening construct was found to be underrepresented, which is probably an important cause…
Descriptors: Evidence, Test Bias, Testing, Listening Comprehension Tests