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Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.; Kwok, Oi-Man – Elementary School Journal, 2014
The authors investigated the differential effect of retention on the development of academic achievement from grades 1 to 5 on children retained in grade 1 over 6 years. Growth mixture model (GMM) analyses supported the existence of two distinct trajectory groups of retained children for both reading and math among 125 ethnically and…
Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Grade Repetition, Academic Achievement, Grade 1