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Lee, Shinhye; Winke, Paula – Language Testing, 2018
We investigated how young language learners process their responses on and perceive a computer-mediated, timed speaking test. Twenty 8-, 9-, and 10-year-old non-native English-speaking children (NNSs) and eight same-aged, native English-speaking children (NSs) completed seven computerized sample TOEFL® Primary™ speaking test tasks. We investigated…
Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Second Language Learning, Responses, Computer Assisted Testing
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Winke, Paula; Gass, Susan; Myford, Carol – Language Testing, 2013
Based on evidence that listeners may favor certain foreign accents over others (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Major, Fitzmaurice, Bunta, & Balasubramanian, 2002; Tauroza & Luk, 1997) and that language-test raters may better comprehend and/or rate the speech of test takers whose native languages (L1s) are more familiar on some level (Carey,…
Descriptors: Native Language, Bias, Dialects, Pronunciation