NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Back to results
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1208479
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2019-Apr
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0734-2829
Teacher Use of Loss-Focused, Utility Value Messages, Prior to High-Stakes Examinations, and Their Appraisal by Students
Putwain, David W.; Symes, Wendy; McCaldin, Tamsin
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, v37 n2 p169-180 Apr 2019
This study set out to assess a new instrument designed to measure the perceived frequency that teachers use fear appeals (communicated value messages that focus on avoiding failure) prior to a high-stakes examination and their appraisal as a challenge or a threat. Data were collected from two samples of students preparing for their high-stakes school exit examinations. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor structure of message frequency, challenge, and threat appraisal. Challenge appraisal positively correlated with value, academic self-efficacy, and engagement. Threat appraisal negatively correlated with academic self-efficacy and engagement. Message frequency was unrelated to value, academic self-efficacy, and engagement. The critical factor in determining relations with antecedents and outcomes is not the message frequency but how it is appraised.
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: United Kingdom (England)
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire