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Austin, Wes; Chen, Bingjie; Goldhaber, Dan; Hanushek, Eric; Holden, Kris; Koedel, Cory; Ladd, Helen; Luo, Jin; Parsons, Eric; Phelan, Gregory; Rivkin, Steven; Sass, Tim; Turaeva, Mavzuna – National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER), 2019
An increasing emphasis on principals as key to school improvement has contributed to efforts to elevate principal effectiveness that have taken various forms across the US. The primacy of the state as the focal point of educational reform elevates the value of understanding commonalities and differences among states in characteristics of…
Descriptors: Elementary Schools, Middle Schools, Principals, Value Added Models