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Lewis, Maria M.; Garces, Liliana M.; Frankenberg, Erica – Educational Researcher, 2019
As the federal entity in charge of enforcing civil rights law, the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR) plays a critical role in addressing the vast inequities that exist in U.S. education. Through an analysis of the policy guidance OCR issued for a number of areas during the Obama administration, we illustrate the agency's…
Descriptors: Public Agencies, Civil Rights, Agency Role, Law Enforcement
Back, Christine J.; Hsin, JD S. – Congressional Research Service, 2019
The last several years have seen renewed debate over the role that race plays in higher education--a debate over "affirmative action." The report first considers "affirmative action" in its original sense: the "mandatory" race-conscious measures that the federal courts have imposed on "de jure" segregated…
Descriptors: Affirmative Action, Equal Protection, Higher Education, Federal Courts