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In 20191
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Biria, Reza1
Chalak, Azizeh1
Karimi, Fatemeh1
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Iran1
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Karimi, Fatemeh; Chalak, Azizeh; Biria, Reza – International Journal of Instruction, 2019
This study examined the effects of two types of pre-listening activities: bottom-up and top-down on Iranian elementary EFL learners' listening comprehension performance. By TOFEL (PBT) test, 90 learners were selected as elementary ones for this study. They were randomly assigned to two experimental and one control groups each consisting of 30…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, English (Second Language), Second Language Learning, Listening Comprehension