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Showing 91 to 105 of 488 results Save | Export
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Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy S.; Kelly, Ryan J. – Child Development, 2009
Relations between children's sleep and cognitive functioning were examined over 2 years, and race and socioeconomic status were assessed as moderators of effects. Third-grade African American and European American children (N = 166; M = 8.72 years) participated at Time 1 and again 2 years later (N = 132). At both Time 1 and Time 2, sleep was…
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Parent Influence, Educational Attainment, Achievement Tests
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Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L. – Child Development, 2008
A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal-referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N = 33), and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children (ages 8-13.5 years old). Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing…
Descriptors: Child Neglect, Child Abuse, Prevention, Memory
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Nummenmaa, Lauri; Peets, Katlin; Salmivalli, Christina – Child Development, 2008
This study provides experimental evidence for automatic, relationship-specific social information processing in 13-year-old adolescents. Photographs of participants' liked, disliked, and unknown peers were used as primes in an affective priming task with happy and angry facial expression probes and in a hypothetical vignette task. For the…
Descriptors: Nonverbal Communication, Adolescents, Cognitive Processes, Information Processing
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Hoehl, Stefanie; Striano, Tricia – Child Development, 2008
Combined with emotional expressions, eye gaze can provide essential information to indicate threat in the environment. The current study assessed the effects of eye gaze direction on infants' neural processing of fearful and angry faces. Event-related potentials were recorded from thirteen 7-month-old infants. Two face-sensitive posterior…
Descriptors: Eye Movements, Infants, Human Body, Cognitive Processes
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Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A. – Child Development, 2008
Predicting how people will behave in the future is a critical social-cognitive task. In four studies (N = 150, ages preschool to adult), young children (ages 4-5) used category information to guide their expectations about individual consistency. They predicted that psychological properties (preferences and fears) would remain consistent over time…
Descriptors: Prediction, Cognitive Processes, Psychological Patterns, Child Development
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Hall, D. Geoffrey; Corrigall, Kathleen; Rhemtulla, Mijke; Donegan, Eleanor; Xu, Fei – Child Development, 2008
Infants watched an experimenter retrieve a stuffed animal from an opaque box and then return it. This happened twice, consistent with either 1 animal appearing on 2 occasions or 2 identical-looking animals each appearing once. The experimenter labeled each object appearance with a different novel label. After infants retrieved 1 object from the…
Descriptors: Toys, Child Development, Cognitive Processes, Infants
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Mondloch, Catherine J.; Thomson, Kendra – Child Development, 2008
Four-year-olds' sensitivity to differences among faces in the spacing of features was tested under 4 task conditions: judging distinctiveness when the external contour was visible and when it was occluded, simultaneous match-to-sample, and recognizing the face of a friend. In each task, the foil differed only in the spacing of features, and…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Human Body, Child Development, Spatial Ability
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McColgan, Kerry L.; McCormack, Teresa – Child Development, 2008
Six experiments examined children's ability to make inferences using temporal order information. Children completed versions of a task involving a toy zoo; one version required reasoning about past events (search task) and the other required reasoning about future events (planning task). Children younger than 5 years failed both the search and the…
Descriptors: Cues, Cognitive Processes, Problem Solving, Inferences
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Ziv, Margalit; Solomon, Ayelet; Frye, Douglas – Child Development, 2008
Two studies examined the role of intention in preschoolers' understanding of teaching. Three- to 5-year-olds judged stories in which there was an intention to teach or not (teaching vs. imitation) for 4 different learning outcomes (successful, partial, failed, and unknown). They also judged 2 stories with embedded instructional intent (e.g.,…
Descriptors: Imitation, Intention, Preschool Children, Discovery Learning
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Cordes, Sara; Brannon, Elizabeth M. – Child Development, 2008
This study investigates the ability of 6-month-old infants to attend to the continuous properties of a set of discrete entities. Infants were habituated to dot arrays that were constant in cumulative surface area yet varied in number for small (less than 4) or large (greater than 3) sets. Results revealed that infants detected a 4-fold (but not…
Descriptors: Infants, Cognitive Processes, Discrimination Learning, Cognitive Ability
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Schulz, Laura E.; Hooppell, Catherine; Jenkins, Adrianna C. – Child Development, 2008
Three studies look at whether the assumption of causal determinism (the assumption that all else being equal, causes generate effects deterministically) affects children's imitation of modeled actions. These studies show even when the frequency of an effect is matched, both preschoolers (N = 60; M = 56 months) and toddlers (N = 48; M = 18 months)…
Descriptors: Preschool Children, Toddlers, Imitation, Cognitive Processes
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Filippova, Eva; Astington, Janet Wilde – Child Development, 2008
This study describes the development of social reasoning in school-age children. An irony task is used to assess 5-, 7-, and 9-year-olds' (N = 72) and adults' (N = 24) recursive understanding of others' minds. Guttman scale analysis demonstrates that in order to understand a speaker's communicative intention, a child needs to recognize the…
Descriptors: Figurative Language, Language Aptitude, Cognitive Development, Social Cognition
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Oh, Seungmi; Lewis, Charlie – Child Development, 2008
This study assessed executive function and mental state understanding in Korean preschoolers. In Experiment 1, forty 3.5- and 4-year-old Koreans showed ceiling performance on inhibition and switching measures, although their performance on working memory and false belief was comparable to that of Western children. Experiment 2 revealed a similar…
Descriptors: Preschool Children, Inhibition, Memory, Foreign Countries
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Buehler, Cheryl; Lange, Garrett; Franck, Karen L. – Child Development, 2007
Early adolescents' (11-14 years) responses to marital hostility were examined in a sample of 416 families. The cognitive-contextual perspective and emotional security hypothesis guided the study and 9 adolescent responses were identified. Prospective associations were examined in several structural equation models that included adolescent problems…
Descriptors: Psychological Patterns, Psychological Needs, Adolescents, Structural Equation Models
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Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Mackintosh, Emily – Child Development, 2007
In 2 studies mothers read wordless storybooks to their preschool-aged children; narratives were analyzed for mental state language. Children's theory-of-mind understanding (ToM) was concurrently assessed. In Study 1, children's (N=30; M age 3 years 9 months) ToM task performance was significantly correlated with mothers' explanatory, causal, and…
Descriptors: Program Effectiveness, Mothers, Preschool Children, Autism
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