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Showing 136 to 150 of 488 results Save | Export
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Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.; Van Rossem, Ronan – Child Development, 2005
This study examined the relation of information processing in 7-month-old preterms ([less than] 1750g at birth) and full-terms to Bayley Mental Development Indexes (MDIs) at 2 and 3 years. The infant measures were drawn from four cognitive domains: attention, speed, memory, and representational competence. Structural equation modeling showed that…
Descriptors: Infants, Structural Equation Models, Cognitive Processes, Perinatal Influences
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Merriman, William E.; Evey, Julie A. – Child Development, 2005
If after teaching a label for 1 object, a speaker does not name a nearby object, 3-year-olds tend to reject the label for the nearby object (W.E. Merriman, J.M. Marazita, L.H. Jarvis, J.A. Evey-Burkey, and M. Biggins, 1995a). In Studies 1 (5-year-olds) and 3 (3-year-olds), this effect depended on object similarity. In Study 2, when a speaker used…
Descriptors: Preschool Children, Instruction, Age Differences, Cognitive Processes
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Berger, Sarah E.; Adolph, Karen E.; Lobo, Sharon A. – Child Development, 2005
This study examined whether 16-month-old walking infants take the material composition of a handrail into account when assessing its effectiveness as a tool to augment balance. Infants were encouraged to cross from one platform to another via bridges of various widths (10, 20, 40cm) with either a wobbly (foam or latex) or a wooden handrail…
Descriptors: Child Development, Physical Activities, Infant Behavior, Toddlers
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Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas; Razza, Rachel Peters – Child Development, 2005
This study examined relations among cortisol reactivity and measures of cognitive function and social behavior in 4- to 5-year-old children (N=169) attending Head Start. Saliva samples for the assay of cortisol were collected at the beginning, middle, and end of an approximately 45-min testing session. Moderate increase in cortisol followed by…
Descriptors: Disadvantaged Youth, Cognitive Processes, Self Control, Knowledge Level
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Horst, Jessica S.; Oakes, Lisa M.; Madole, Kelly L. – Child Development, 2005
Despite a large body of research demonstrating the kinds of categories to which infants respond, few studies have directly assessed how infants' categorization unfolds over time. Four experiments used a visual familiarization task to evaluate 10-month-old infants' (N=98) learning of exemplars characterized by commonalities in appearance or…
Descriptors: Infants, Classification, Visual Stimuli, Cognitive Processes
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Luciana, Monica; Conklin, Heather M.; Hooper, Catalina J.; Yarger, Rebecca S. – Child Development, 2005
The prefrontal cortex modulates executive control processes and structurally matures throughout adolescence. Consistent with these events, prefrontal functions that demand high levels of executive control may mature later than those that require working memory but decreased control. To test this hypothesis, adolescents (9 to 20 years old)…
Descriptors: Adolescents, Spatial Ability, Recognition (Psychology), Memory
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Bremner, J. Gavin; Johnson, Scott P.; Slater, Alan; Mason, Uschi; Foster, Kirsty; Cheshire, Andrea; Spring, Joanne – Child Development, 2005
When an object moves behind an occluder and re-emerges, 4-month-old infants perceive trajectory continuity only when the occluder is narrow, raising the question of whether time or distance out of sight is the important constraining variable. One hundred and forty 4-month-olds were tested in five experiments aimed to disambiguate time and distance…
Descriptors: Infants, Infant Behavior, Perceptual Development, Visual Perception
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Carlson, Stephanie M.; Wong, Antoinette; Lemke, Margaret; Cosser, Caron – Child Development, 2005
Given that gestures may provide access to transitions in cognitive development, preschoolers' performance on standard tasks was compared with their performance on a new gesture false belief task. Experiment 1 confirmed that children (N45, M age54 months) responded consistently on two gesture tasks and that there is dramatic improvement on both the…
Descriptors: Beliefs, Preschool Children, Cognitive Development, Nonverbal Communication
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Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Bertin, Evelin; Hayden, Angela; Reed, Andrea – Child Development, 2005
Adults use both first-order, or categorical, relations among features (e.g., the nose is above the mouth), and second-order, or fine spatial relations (e.g., the space between eyes), to process faces. Adults' expertise in face processing is thought to be based on the use of second-order relations. In the current study, 5-month-olds detected…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Age Differences, Infants, Perceptual Development
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Bell, Martha Ann; Wolfe, Christy D. – Child Development, 2004
Regulatory aspects of development can best be understood by research that conceptualizes relations between cognition and emotion. The neural mechanisms associated with regulatory processes may be the same as those associated with higher order cognitive processes. Thus, from a developmental cognitive neuroscience perspective, emotion and cognition…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Emotional Response, Psychological Patterns, Infants
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Arsenio, William F.; Lemerise, Elizabeth A. – Child Development, 2004
Social information processing and moral domain theories have developed in relative isolation from each other despite their common focus on intentional harm and victimization, and mutual emphasis on social cognitive processes in explaining aggressive, morally relevant behaviors. This article presents a selective summary of these literatures with…
Descriptors: Moral Development, Information Processing, Cognitive Processes, Aggression
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Dodge, Kenneth A.; Rabiner, David L. – Child Development, 2004
Social information processing theory has been posited as a description of how mental operations affect behavioral responding in social situations. Arsenio and Lemerise (this issue) proposed that consideration of concepts and methods from moral domain models could enhance this description. This paper agrees with their proposition, although it…
Descriptors: Interpersonal Competence, Moral Development, Moral Values, Information Processing
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Luna,Beatriz; Garver,Krista E.; Urban,Trinity A.; Lazar,Nicole A.; Sweeney,John A. – Child Development, 2004
To characterize cognitive maturation through adolescence, processing speed, voluntary response suppression, and spatial working memory were measured in 8- to 30-year-old (N=245) healthy participants using oculomotor tasks. Development progressed with a steep initial improvement in performance followed by stabilization in adolescence. Adult-level…
Descriptors: Memory, Cognitive Processes, Adolescent Development, Adolescents
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Hayes, Brett K.; Younger, Katherine – Child Development, 2004
Three experiments examined the changes in category representation that take place when children use exemplars for tasks other than classification. In Experiments 1 and 2, 6- and 10-year-old children learned to classify exemplars of a novel category and then used the same exemplars in an inferential prediction task. In a subsequent classification…
Descriptors: Classification, Task Analysis, Children, Inferences
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Napolitano, Amanda C.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M. – Child Development, 2004
When presented simultaneously with equally discriminable, but unfamiliar, visual and auditory stimuli, 4-year-olds exhibited auditory dominance, processing only auditory information ( Sloutsky & Napolitano, 2003). The current study examined factors underlying auditory dominance. In 6 experiments, 4-year-olds (N181) were presented with auditory and…
Descriptors: Familiarity, Auditory Stimuli, Preschool Children, Visual Stimuli
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